Developmental Status Seen In Changes In Infant Behavior
Early childhood is also an important time when the foundation is formed, with remarkable physical and mental development. Each child has his or her own personality, and although there are individual differences in growth, there are common characteristics in development, path, and order during the growth process. In this article, I will explain the developmental situation that can be seen from the behaviors and remarks seen by age group.
Compared to infancy, children in early childhood have a much wider range of interests and lifestyles. Through contact with people close to you, such as parents and siblings, and relationships with things around you, we promote the formation of attachments and the development of cognitive ability and sociality. Through this, you will gain lifestyle habits such as eating, going to the bathroom alone, and sleeping at a fixed time.
In addition, as the range of living such as parks, nursery schools and kindergartens expands, the number of children playing with other children will increase. Through various games, you will develop your imagination, inspiration, expressing yourself, and accepting others.
In early childhood, when you cannot speak well, you can check the developmental status by changing behavior. From infancy, which is expressed by crying, by the time you can grasp and walk, you will grasp simple things and imitate the behavior of people close to you.
Eventually, he spoke words, and as he grew up, he spoke two-word and three-word sentences, expanding the range of self-expression.
Behavior seen between 0 and 1 year old
First, let’s look at the behaviors that are mainly seen between the ages of 0 and 1.
A baby’s “crying” is a sign of discomfort or anxiety
Babies express themselves by crying when they are hungry, when their diapers are wet and uncomfortable, when they are sleepy but unable to sleep, or when they feel uncomfortable. It also cries when you are sick, such as when you have pain or itching in your body or when you have a fever. You need to be careful if you are crying differently than usual or if you do not stop crying for a long time.
In addition, babies aged 0 to 3 months may cry because of changes in the mother’s intrauterine and extrauterine environment. In such cases, gently wrap and gently rock the baby, as if it were in the womb.
One sleep time becomes longer, and the rhythm of life is adjusted by distinguishing between day and night.
Babies up to about two months old sleep after breastfeeding and milking and wake up approximately every two to four hours. I doze, and I haven’t been able to distinguish between day and night.
From about 3 to 4 months after birth, the distinction between day and night gradually becomes apparent, the time spent waking up during the day becomes longer, and the person gradually sleeps together at night.
About 6 to 12 months after birth, it is also a time when activities become active, such as playing with physical activity during the day. By exercising and taking regular naps, you will often sleep for a long time at night, and you will gain a rhythm of life.
Shyness is a sign of growth that builds a relationship of trust with people close to you
When you are about 6 months old, you will recognize and remember your mother, father, people who always take care of you, and people you are familiar with.
By remembering, you can identify strangers, and when strangers or unfamiliar people approach you, you become shy, shy, cry, or cling to your most reassuring mother. Shy babies also are curious. This is because sometimes people are interested in strangers and cry because of the conflict of wanting to approach but being scared.
In this way, shyness is proof that the brain that remembers has grown during the growth process, and that it has built a relationship of trust with people close to us.
Developmental status and behavior of 1-2 years old
When you are 1 to 2 years old, you will take various actions such as imitating actions and rolling things. Let’s take a concrete look at what kind of action we will take.
Gain the behavior necessary for life by imitating the behavior of people close to you
Around the age of one, you will grab and walk, and you will start walking. During this period, the development of motor function is remarkable, and it widened the range of behavior. Based on the reassuring relationships and environment that we have cultivated so far, we will voluntarily work on people close to us and those around us.
The ego that wants to do anything on its own also sprouts, imitating the interesting behavior of people close to us, pinching things, turning paper, scribbling, rolling things, using spoons, holding cups, etc. You will gain many actions. Watching what adults do and wanting to do the same, helping them to fold the laundry together, and playing with blocks as if they were cars will become popular. By taking these actions, your child will be confident that he / she can do it, and will increase his / her spontaneity.
If you can do more things, gently help and motivate yourself to become independent. When you can, let’s admit that you’ve done it so that you can enjoy a sense of satisfaction and accomplishment. Also, consider the range of children’s activities, the spread of play, the flow line, etc., and arrange furniture and playground equipment safely so as not to get injured, and prepare an environment where you can move your body sufficiently.
Express with words, pointing, gestures, etc. to convey your thoughts
Around the age of one, you will spoke meaningful words such as “mamma (rice)” and “boob (car)”.
Around the age of two, I spoke two-word sentences that connect two words, such as “Wanwan Ilyo,” and my desire to convey my thoughts increased. By becoming able to understand the words necessary for daily life, I try to express what I want to do and what I want to do with words and pointing.
The range of activities will expand, and you will gradually seek relationships with other children. You will want to convey the joy and emotion you feel to adults and friends who sympathize with you, and to experience it together.
Developmental status and behaviors of 2 to 3 years old
When you grow up to 2 to 3 years old, you act more spontaneously. Another characteristic is that you can’t act as you want and start crying.
Evidence that ego and emotions are growing well during the unpleasant period
At two, my intelligence develops and my ego grows, and I try to do anything myself without the help of adults, but I can’t do what I want, I can’t accept it, or I can do it myself. I also experience that my desires are hindered by not having it.
Children around this time still can’t cope with this situation, so they say “I don’t like it”, sometimes tantrum, and rebel and assert themselves. This is also evidence that the ego is growing well.
In addition, selfishness and likes and dislikes of food can other mothers, which is also a proof that emotions have developed in a complicated manner. While I want to do everything myself, I am swaying between independence and sweetness that I want my mother to watch over, so I do not think that I am being swayed by my child, but accept the swaying feeling and patiently Let’s watch over.
It is also effective to repeat the words of the child, except the feeling that “it is so”, hug it, and touch the body.
Motor function develops such as jumping with both feet
By the age of two, you will walk firmly, and your walking function will improve. You will run and straddle at a small height, so you will climb stairs. In addition, basic motor functions such as jumping with both feet will be improved.
You will move your body the way you want, and you will have better control over your physical activity, so you will prefer to move your body to rhythmic exercise and music. It’s a fun time to move and walk actively. The range of activities is expanding, so when you go for a walk, hold hands in dangerous places such as the road.
Developmental status of 3-4 years old and behaviors / behaviors of concern
By the time you reach the age of 3-4, you will learn the rules and the variety of words will increase. Also, you will ask adults what you do not know. It is important not to ignore questions and to stay close to them.
Learning sociality and growing while playing with friends
By the age of three, you will develop basic athletic ability, develop the basics of spoken language, and become able to eat and excrete yourself. The ego becomes clearer and tries to act as an independent being. Then, while interacting with other children, you will learn the order and rules. During this time, my attention and observing ability are increasing, so I play with my friends by imitating the behavior of adults around me and my daily experiences. By interacting with other children, you will learn to be conscious of “friends” from “self-centered”, to make friends, and to give up. In addition, knowing the feelings of the other person by fighting promotes the development of sociality and leads to reach human understanding. Let’s create an opportunity to play with many children.
That many questions such as “Why?” Is evidence of a stronger desire for knowledge.
By the age of three, words become more and more abundant, and the desire for knowledge to understand the names of things and their functions becomes stronger. And if it is a realistic and concrete range through your actions and experiences, you will predict the results in advance, and you will act with intention and expectation for what you want to do. In addition, you will understand simple story lines, and you will predict the destination of the story and think with empathy.
That many questions such as “why?” And “why?” Are asked during this period is evidence of a strong desire for knowledge. Repeat the question until you know what you want to know. There are endless questions, but communication is important. When you have a question, stop and try to answer it politely. It delighted children that their father and mother have thought together. Sometimes, instead of just answering the question, ask your child, “Why do you think?” From your father or mother.
Your child’s own thinking and answering can also be an opportunity to develop independence and imagination. If your child can give you the answer you think, praise it, whether it’s correct or incorrect. You can increase your child’s self-affirmation by complimenting them as “outstanding”.
Changes in children’s behavior are evidence of growth
Behavioral changes in early childhood are evidence of growth. Each child has his or her own personality, and there are individual differences in growth. Your child is growing every day. Use the developmental status of each age group as a guide only and warmly watch your child’s growth while respecting their individuality.
Understand your child’s developmental stages and age-appropriate challenges
Children have several stages of development.
The developmental stage is the stage of physical, mental, and emotional growth of the child.
By giving tasks that match this developmental stage and knowing the child’s developmental stage, it will be
easier to communicate with the child and provide education.
will introduce what is the developmental stage of a child, the developmental stage of a child by age , and the issues that match the developmental stage.
Overview of the child’s developmental stages
There are individual differences in the growth of children, but the general flow is the same.
This common growth is called the developmental stage.
With each step, the child’s horizons broaden
, deepen their quest, and raise their goals and ambitions.
By giving tasks and overcoming them according to this developmental stage, we can contribute to further development
and support smooth and healthy growth.
If you do not educate according to the developmental stage, or if you leave it without repeating the stages, it will have an
adverse effect on the subsequent developmental stage, and even as an adult, it will affect the character and characteristics It is said that.
In order for a child to grow up physically and mentally, it is necessary to accurately grasp the characteristics according to the developmental stage and respond accordingly
Developmental stages of children by age
The “psychosocial development theory” advocated by psychologist Ericsson
is the idea that human psychology accords to the surrounding people and environment. Of these, the developmental stage of children is still familiar to those who are engaged in educational institutions and those who work in early childhood education and childcare, and is used as a reference.
The development of the ego is indispensable for human growth.
but let’s see how the development of the ego differs depending on the age.
There are the following stages of development, but this time we will introduce an overview of education-related up to adolescence.
* Early childhood
* Early childhood
* Late childhood
* School childhood
* Adult period
* Middle age
* Old age
Basic trust develops in infancy
The period from 0 to 1 year and 6 months is called infancy.
Confidence grows during infancy.
Newborn babies cannot live without relying on their parents.
Appeal yourself by crying and communicating your desires to those around you.
You can increase your sense of trust by getting help from your parents and those around you and receiving a lot of love.
However, on the contrary, if the situation where no one helps even if crying continues, distrust will grow and the future outlook on life and personality will be greatly adversely affected.
Autonomy develops in early childhood
Early childhood is about 1 year and 6 months to 3 years old.
Autonomy is fostered during this period.
You will begin to speak and walk, and if you grow fast, you may react to running or rejecting something. You will be able to change clothes, excrete, and eat by yourself, which you have been asked by your parents and others, and you will develop your autonomy.
At this time of year, teach your child how to eat, excrete, change clothes, and give them the opportunity to try it for themselves.
On the contrary, even at this time, if the parents do everything without letting the child do anything, the child’s autonomy will not grow.
Also, if you try hard and fail, if you scold more than necessary, your child will become atrophied.
It can also weaken your willingness to try new things.
Spontaneity develops in late childhood
The period between the ages of 3 and 5 is called the late infant.
Spontaneity is born during this time.
More children are going to kindergartens and nursery schools, and more time is spent outside of their parents.
Then you will find something to play with and talk to your friends.
If you take any action on your own initiative, be sure to react to your child, watching over them so that they do not take the initiative in the wrong direction.
If the child’s spontaneity is ignored and treated appropriately during this period, the child is more likely to feel guilty.
Diligence develops during school age
The period between the ages of 5 and 12 is called school age.
Diligence develops in school age.
This age is the time to go to elementary school in Japan.
You will discover how to study and the joy of learning, and you will want to learn more yourself.
You will also learn to do your homework and complete tasks, and by repeating this many times, you will gain confidence and understand your abilities.
That said, not all children love studying.
Also, no matter how much you study, it is natural that there are areas of strength and weakness.
At this time, it is important for parents and adults around them to provide solid support.
Let’s try to tackle the problem together until you understand it, and try to expand your area of expertise.
Just scolding a child for a bad score will make the child feel inferior.
Identity develops in adolescence
The period from 12 to 18 years old is called adolescence.
Identity develops during this time.
Identity is an identity that is established as a result of many thoughts about who you are , what you should do in the future, what you want to do, and what you want to be.
By knowing who you are and how you relate to society, you can take action in the future.
If you spend this time without establishing your identity
, you will not know who you are and what you should aim for, you will not be able to find your place in society, and you will suffer for a long time. I will.
What are the issues according to the child development stage?
Based on the developmental stages proposed by Ericsson as described above, it is important to consider issues according to the age and growth of the child.
* Give a lot of love in
infancy * Give yourself a chance to challenge yourself in early childhood *
Teach morals in school age and make
them understand group behavior and social behavior .
A task suitable for this developmental stage can discourage the child if it is too early, and
can hinder the progress to subsequent developmental stages if it is too late.
In order to understand the developmental stage of a child, it is important to observe the child on a regular basis. Think carefully about where your
child is and what challenges you should complete
Deepen your understanding of your child’s developmental stages and challenges
We introduced the developmental stages of children and developmental tasks.
There are individual differences in the growth of children, but if you observe them every day, you will be able to see what stage you are in.
By imposing and clearing tasks according to the developmental stage, you will gain more confidence and grow up as a person. Let’s deepen our understanding of developmental stages and tasks, support children at the right time, and watch their growth.